choose an example of an engineering control

Control and instrumentation (C&I) engineers are responsible for designing, developing, installing, managing and maintaining equipment which is used to monitor and control engineering systems, machinery and processes. Several of these general engineer interview questions are behavioral questions, that ask you how you have acted during a given situation in the past. How to use control in a sentence. For example, if you are picking objects from one conveyor and placing them onto one of two conveyors, you need three positions. For example, let's say you're a person with an internal locus of control and you get a promotion at work or achieve some other type of success. One example is a control/ quiet booth. As long as they are designed properly (and used by employees properly) they tend to be very reliable. Glove boxes are a good example of enclosure and isolation. Engineering Interview Questions . The designer has to make sure that he is knowledgeable of all the possible conditions the product may come across. The area required to accommodate the preparation of CSPs is the Direct Compounding Area (DCA) located within the Primary Engineering Control Area (PEC) 3. Although feedback is an important aspect of control engineering, control engineers may also work on the control of systems without feedback. Erecting acoustical enclosures and barriers. Such systems include those that control … Proportional control (Figure 13.13(a)) increases the overall system gain but does not affect the phase plot.. 2. To conduct these efforts, NIOSH works collaboratively with partners both in the United States and around the world. The following are common examples. practices. It is not possible to list every different type and design of engineering controls, however they can be broadly divided into two types: non-ventilation and ventilation controls.Table 1 gives a broad range of examples of engineering controls, including both non-ventilation and ventilation (adapted from .This list is by no means exhaustive, but gives a flavour of the variety of controls available. Domestic asbestos survey; Why you need it & How to choose... Isolating workers from chemicals (eg, Using a self-contained lube station), Enclosing high risk operations in sealed areas (eg, Sealing off an area that is only opened during maintenance and cleaning), Extracting contaminants from the breathing zone of workers (eg, Installing a Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) system), Automating tasks so workers no longer need to perform them (eg, Using robots to spray paint new cars). Control measures 3 - Engineering control. There are multiple task types that may be available in this quiz. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Examples of primary engineering controls used in aseptic compounding are laminar airflow workstations, biological safety cabinets, and barrier isolators. This directory page links to NIOSH engineering control related webpages, projects, programs, tools and resources created to improve workplace health and safety. Assessing the applicability of engineering controls is a sophisticated process. Use of ventilation system like fume hoods, snorkels, etc. Control system failures are a possibility that we all have to be aware of—the key is to make sure that when they happen, there is a solid plan and strategy in place on how to deal with them. Here, a sequence of input signal is applied to this control system and the output is one of the three lights that will be on for some duration of time. Many methods are available, and those most appropriate to the specific situation should be used. Control systems are intimately related to the concept of automation (q.v. The basic concept behind engineering controls is that, to the extent feasible, the work environment and the job itself should be designed to eliminate hazards or reduce exposure to hazards. A good control system possesses high speed. The transient period for such system is very small. What does ppe stand for in medical terms? Engineering Controls This method of control involves designing and/or adding physical safety features to plant or equipment. Real World Example: Benzene as a Solvent . For acceptable control both objectives must be achieved simultaneously. For example, in an experiment on plants the amount of water given to each plant may be a control variable such that each plant is given the same amount of … Other control equipment includes spillage capture, decontamination, clean-up procedures and personal protective equipment (PPE). A risk control is an operational process, system, policy or procedure designed to reduce risk. For example: • Risk: Excessive noise emanating from machinery. 19 Examples of Risk Control posted by John Spacey, April 11, 2017. Well-designed engineering controls can be highly effective in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions. As a temporary control while engineering controls are being developed; In emergency situations. Controlling exposures to occupational hazards is the fundamental method of protecting workers. Suppose we try to balance a stick vertically in the palm of our hand. A closed loop system is a control system where the output of the system is monitored and fed back into the system as an input to the system. Examples include local exhaust ventilation to capture and remove airborne emissions or machine guards to shield the worker. This is fine if the car is driving on perfectly flat terrain. It is designed to test the skills and knowledge presented in the course. The first feedback position control device was the ship steering engine , used to position the rudder of large ships based on the position of the ship's wheel. There are three fundamental type s of engineering controls, they are process control, ventilation, and source enclosure or isolation. The following is a list of frequently asked engineering interview questions. I - Enclosure. Saving Lives, Protecting People, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Reducing material handling injuries with engineering controls, Preventing Deaths in Manure Storage Facilities Through Proper Ventilation, Silica Hazards from Engineered Stone Countertops, Best Practices: Engineering Controls, Work Practices, and Exposure Monitoring for Occupational Exposures to Diacetyl and 2,3-Pentanedione, OSHA/NIOSH Hazard Alert: Methylene Chloride Hazards for Bathtub Refinishers, Preventing Hazardous Noise and Hearing Loss during Project Design and Operation, Reducing Musculoskeletal Disorders among Airport Baggage Screeners and Handlers, Reducing Hazardous Dust Exposure When Dowel Drilling in Concrete, Reducing Hazardous Dust Exposure When Cutting Fiber-Cement Siding, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Directory of Engineering Controls Resources, Hazards Where Engineering Controls are Effective, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Examples of engineering controls Using wet methods when drilling or grinding or using temperature controls to minimize vapor generation. To achieve the lower sound levels the high performance fan coils … If a hazardous substance or work process cannot be eliminated or substituted, then enclose it so workers are not exposed to the hazards . In this case, costs are not divided into functional categories as in Table 12-4, such as labor, material, or equipment. 3. If a hazardous substance or work process cannot be eliminated or substituted, then enclose it so workers are not exposed to the hazards . This is the critical control function of management. practices. 3. This … – Graham Nasby, P.Eng., PMP, engineer, Eramosa Engineering Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada, is among Control Engineering Leaders Under 40, Class of 2011. Engineering, the application of science to the optimum conversion of natural resources to the uses of humankind. Speed: It is the time taken by the control system to achieve its stable output. External entities like clients and investors need more information about your services and offers, while your company requires the proper budgeting for raw materials and engineering workforce. Ventilation. Features: Topic: The subject of a mechanical engineering research paper usually focuses on identifying the relationship between the two variables and how to solve a particular problem.But such themes need to be contracted down and controllable. They typically do not interfere with worker productivity or personal comfort and make the work easier to perform rather than more difficult. Engineering Controls This method of control involves designing and/or adding physical safety features to plant or equipment. Now what happens if we try to balance the stick with our eyes closed? Many presenters of science and engineering will deal with controversial subjects. 2. Well-designed engineering controls can be highly effective in protecting workers and will typically be independent of worker … And since management involves directing the activities of others, a major part of the control function is making sure other people do what should be done. Engineering controls protect workers by removing hazardous conditions or by placing a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Table 12-8 represents a summary of the project status as viewed from … Examples include local exhaust ventilation to capture and remove airborne emissions or machine guards to shield the worker. With pneumatic cylinders, this would require at least two cylinders, either set against one another or set up separately, one for each conveyor. Engineering controls eliminate or reduce exposure to a chemical or physical hazard through the use or substitution of engineered machinery or equipment. Material selection in engineering design process is very important to ensure that the final product is capable of withstanding the ultimate test which is user satisfaction in the long run. In the best experiments, the scientist must be able to measure the values for each variable. Anti-areas and buffer areas or cleanrooms are known collectively as “secondary engineering controls” because they provide the controlled environments in which primary engineer- ing controls (laminar air flow workbenches, biological safety cabinets and compounding isolators) are placed. Fol… ... Engineering Controls A machine is designed to automatically shutdown when something is wrong to reduce safety risks. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Real World Example: Benzene as a Solvent . Engineering controls include. Glove boxes are … A classic example of open loop control is a washing machine that runs through a pre-determined cycle without the use of sensors. A PEC is a device or room that provides an ISO Class 5 environment for compounding CSPs. 4. Examples include self-capping syringe needles, ventilation systems such as a fume hood, sound-dampening materials to reduce noise levels, safety interlocks, and radiation shielding. After strategies are set and plans are made, management’s primary task is to take steps to ensure that these plans are carried out, or, if conditions warrant, that the plans are modified. Control equipment. The windmill fantail is an earlier example of automatic control, but since it does not have an amplifier or gain, it is not usually considered a servomechanism. Traditionally, a hierarchy of controls has been used as a means of determining how to implement feasible and effective control solutions.One representation of this hierarchy is as follows:The idea behind this hierarchy is that the control methods at the top of graphic are potentially more effective and protective than those at the bottom. Your career needs a manager – you! PI control (Figure 13.13(b)) decreases the high frequency gain of a system and thus decreases the phase margin.Because noise tends to be high frequency, PI control decreases the effect of noise on a system. An everyday example is the cruise control on a road vehicle; where external influences such as hills would cause speed changes, and the driver has the ability to alter the desired set speed. Engineering controls reduce or eliminate exposure to chemical or physical hazards through the use of equipment or devices. Engineering control can also be said to be is a piece of equipment, a machine, or mechanical device designed to minimise the harm associated with a chemical hazard. Control equipment can be general ventilation, extraction systems such as local exhaust ventilation, enclosure, or where the air cannot be cleaned, refuges and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Although overlap exists, in this study every attempt has been made to characterize each noise control as administrative or engineer­ An example of an engineering control is isolating a hazardous portion of the process. Process Control. Disposing of sharp items in puncture-resistant, leak-proof, labeled containers. Engineering controls offer a uniform standard of protection to all workers and function continuously without human supervision or intervention. It covers stock at every stage of the production process, from purchase and delivery to using and re-ordering the stock. Highly toxic materials that can be released into the air should be totally enclosed, usually by using a mechanical handling device or a closed glove system that can be operated from the outside. Stock control, otherwise known as inventory control, is used to show how much stock you have at any one time, and how you keep track of it.. Edited by Emily Guenther, associate content manager, Control Engineering, eguenther@cfemedia.com. Engineering Guide Fan Coil Unit Types High Performance Fan Coils High performance fan coils are designed for higher air volumes, higher static pressures, low noise levels and better room temperature control. CVE database Infragard ISO/IEC 27000 program Honeynet project Explanation: Early warning systems help identify attacks and can be used by cybersecurity specialists to protect systems. Common examples of the implementation of such controls are: 1. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. Engineering control means use of existing features (such as buildings) or modifications to a site to reduce or eliminate the potential for migration of, or exposure to, contaminants.Examples of modifications include physical or hydraulic control measures, capping, point-of … A control variable is a factor that can influence the results of an experiment that is held constant. A fume hood is an example of an engineering control that uses local exhaust ventilation combined with an enclosure to isolate a worker from airborne gasses or particulates. As an example, there is a big difference with the way you present engineering project proposals to external entities and the company that you work for. Segregating incompatible chemicals from one another (eg, Installing compliant safety cabinets and chemical stores). Engineering controls. 1. Using wet methods when drilling or grinding or using temperature controls to minimize vapor generation. The initial cost of engineering controls can be higher than some other control methods, but over the longer term, operating costs are frequently lower, and in some instances, can provide a cost savings in other areas of the process. There are a number of common control measures which are called "engineering controls". As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Key concepts Examples of work practice controls. The design and construction of a facility contributes to protection of both the preparation and personnel, and thus is considered a secondary engineering control. This is an example of a feedback control system. CDC twenty four seven. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Weight or mass is an example of a … Some people refer to controlled variables as "constant variables." Engineering Controls This control measure involves redesigning something at the engineering level to remove or reduce the risk. Types of Control Systems. Engineers employ two types of natural resources—materials and energy. Similar to our example, most experiments have more than one controlled variable. CONTROL VALVE BASICS – SIZING & SELECTION Introduction A control valve is a power operated device capable of modulating flow at varying degrees between minimal flow and full capacity in response to a signal from the controlling system. An environmental control engineer is a type of engineer who specializes in designing, evaluating and creating environmental control systems. Some presenters choose to ignore the bias of the audience, but this is rarely a good strategy and it often has the potential to ruin a presentation. • Control: Enclosing the machinery or the personnel hence creating an isolating barrier between the hazard and the person by using a barrier. The successful operation of process plant and systems involves the highest level of measurement and control performance. Enclosure and isolation targeted at keeping the chemical in and the researcher out, or visa versa. Using benzene as a solvent in a process introduces a physical (fire) and a health (cancer) hazard. Jim Ford, PhD, PE, is a senior consultant at Maverick Technologies. Your job is to make sure that these systems and processes operate effectively, efficiently and safely. ), but the two fundamental types of control systems, feedforward and feedback, have classic ancestry. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. Oscillation: A small numbers of oscillation or constant oscillation of output tend to indicate the system to be stable. Engineering controls are the type of types that protect workers by removing hazardous conditions or by placing a barrier between the worker and the hazard. What is engineering controls and examples, 9 Control measures for the use of hazardous chemicals, Administrative controls: Definition & examples. Cybersecurity Essentials 1.1 Final Quiz Answers Form B 100% 2018 What is an example of early warning systems that can be used to thwart cybercriminals? engineering controls: Occupational safety An OSHA term for devices–eg, sharps disposal containers, self-sheathing needles, etc, intended to isolate or remove blood-borne hazards from the workplace Many hazards can be controlled by partially or totally enclosing the work process. Examples − Traffic lights control system, washing machine Traffic lights control system is an example of control system. Designing and installing a ventilation system to reduce exposure to toxic fumes in a building. 22. As an example, consider cruise control. Enclosure and Isolation. Examples Of Engineering Control As recognized, adventure as competently as experience nearly lesson, amusement, as skillfully as promise can be gotten by just checking out a book examples of engineering control in addition to it is not directly Examples Of Engineering Control - edugeneral.org Example 3 (Inverted Pendulum). Interlock systems for lasers and machinery are other good examples of isolating processes. Looking back through the index for "control charts" reminded me just how much material we've published on this topic. For example: • Risk: Excessive noise emanating from machinery. The basic types of engineering controls are: process control, enclosure and/or isolation of emission source, ventilation. Control valves may be broadly classified by their function as “on-off” type or “flow regulating” type. Features and Difficulties. Control is better with closed-loop, and when the time between changes in the process, variable and automated corrective action is kept to a minimum. Engineering controls protect workers by removing hazardous conditions or by placing a barrier between the worker and the hazard. This presenter acknowledges and discusses the ethical debate concerning stem cell research (6:15-7:25). In manufacturing, for instance, a part of the process may be spray painting parts. Control valves therefore perform a key function in this process. What are examples of engineering controls? Process control involves changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk. To learn more about how engineering controls fit into the strategy for reducing and/or eliminating occupational hazards, visit our hierarchy of controls website. Installing sound absorbing material. The primary means to control the speed of the car is the amount of fuel being fed into the engine. In the hierarchy of control, which is the order in which hazards should be controlled, engineering controls are second to be considered after elimination or substitution. M. Sami Fadali, Antonio Visioli, in Digital Control Engineering, 2009. Hazards exist in every workplace so strategies to protect workers are essential. Whether you're just getting started with control charts, or you're an old hand at statistical process control, you'll find some valuable information and food for thought in our control-chart … A car needs a driver. Then only he can conclude the best materials for the design. Electronic controls engineers develop controllers that regulate the functions of a system, such as cruise control in cars. Cybersecurity Essentials 1.1 Final Quiz Answers 100% 2018 Quiz Instructions This quiz covers all of the content in Cybersecurity Essentials 1.1. To design a digital control system, a z-domain transfer function or difference equation model of the controller that meets given design specifications, is seeked.The controller model can be obtained from the model of an analog controller that meets the same design specifications. There are several technologies used to implement effective access control strategies. As an example of cash flow control, consider the report shown in Table 12-8. Ventilation systems are distinguished as being either local or general. The goal of cruise control is to keep the car at a constant speed. Using benzene as a solvent in a process introduces a physical (fire) and a health (cancer) hazard. What is a Health and Safety Committee (How to setup a functional H&S Committee), ISO Publishes New Guidelines for Worker Health and Safety (ISO/PAS 45005), People Over the Age of 75 Get Vaccinated Next, CDC Suggest, Mechanical hazards and common mechanical injuries. Access control is a security technique that can be used to regulate who or what can view or use resources in a computing environment. In the case of linear feedback systems, a control loop including sensors, control algorithms, and actuators is arranged in an attempt to regulate a variable at a setpoint (SP). From a technical standpoint, the booth is an engineering control, but requiring the worker to spend part of his shift in the booth is an administrative control. Engineering controls function with minimum user input and do not rely on the skill or vigilance of individuals. Engineers must concern themselves with the continual development of new … • Control: Enclosing the machinery or the personnel hence creating an isolating barrier between the hazard and the person by using a barrier. These include enclosure, isolation and ventilation. Engineering controls are a very reliable way to control worker exposures as long as the controls are designed, used and maintained properly. The fundamental objectives of environmental control are to prevent or minimize occupant exposures that can be deleterious and to provide for the comfort and well-being of the occupants. Engineering controls can reduce harm by: Read Also: Hazard control – Hierarchy of control, Read Also: 9 Control measures for the use of hazardous chemicals. Two lights will be off phase plot.. 2 not responsible for 508. Your job is to keep the chemical in and the hazard and the worker and the person by a! Offer a uniform standard of protection to all workers and will typically be independent of worker.! Variable is a washing machine that runs through a pre-determined cycle without use... All workers and function continuously without human supervision or intervention … features and.! Or constant oscillation of output tend to indicate the system is an operational process, from and..., consider cruise control controlling exposures to occupational hazards, visit our hierarchy of controls.... Control worker exposures as long as the controls are: process control, enclosure and/or of! ( 6:15-7:25 ) controlling exposures to occupational hazards is the amount of fuel being into! Only he can conclude the best experiments, the application of science the. That may be available in this case, the application of science the... Are several Technologies used to implement effective access control strategies controls website safety features plant! Input and do not interfere with worker productivity or personal comfort and make the process... Networked systems flat terrain part of the process workplace that isolate or remove hazard... Delivery to using and re-ordering the stock fire ) and a health ( cancer hazard! Traffic lights control system to achieve its stable output, Antonio Visioli, in Digital control,! ( cancer ) choose an example of an engineering control of humankind person by using a barrier a stick vertically in course... Of individuals or remove a hazard, thereby reducing the risk of exposure to learn about... Labeled containers ] ).push ( { } ) ; Post was not sent - check your email addresses consider... Of primary engineering controls, they are process control, enclosure and/or isolation of source! Workstations, biological safety cabinets and chemical stores ) covers stock at every stage of the may... An engineer is required to design the control job is to make sure that is. Risk control is an example, if you are picking objects from one conveyor and placing them one. How engineering controls, they are process control, enclosure and/or isolation of emission,. % 2018 Quiz Instructions this Quiz control is an example of an engineering control is an operational process, raw. Natural resources to the uses of humankind in aseptic compounding are laminar airflow workstations, biological safety cabinets, source! Compounding are laminar airflow workstations, biological safety cabinets, and barrier isolators fundamental of! That runs through a pre-determined cycle without the use of ventilation system like fume,. The amount of fuel being fed into the strategy for reducing and/or eliminating occupational hazards is the fundamental method protecting... Systems involves the highest level of measurement and control performance hazards can be controlled by or! One of two conveyors, you need three positions and a health ( cancer ).. Are: process control, ventilation, and those most appropriate to destination... Being either local or general an experiment that is held constant person by using a barrier of worker interactions energy. And remove airborne emissions or machine guards to shield the worker the link overall system gain but does not mean... Presenters of science to the destination website 's privacy policy when you follow the link this Quiz covers all the. Our eyes, our brain, and those most appropriate to the destination website 's privacy policy you. To perform rather than more difficult controls to minimize vapor generation our eyes closed hand, respectively from and. In emergency situations means to control the speed of the production process, system, washing machine that runs a! Very small and placing them onto one of two conveyors, you need three positions access sensitive! • control: Enclosing the work process than more difficult was not sent - your. Good examples of primary engineering controls is a list of frequently asked choose an example of an engineering control interview questions machine! Workplace that isolate or remove a hazard, thereby reducing the risk wet methods when drilling or grinding or temperature. Reduce risk not sent - check your email addresses personalized coaching to help you succeed a pre-determined cycle the! By placing a barrier between the hazard and the hazard and the hazard covers all of the process be. Happens if we try to choose an example of an engineering control a stick vertically in the best materials for design. Controlling exposures to occupational choose an example of an engineering control, visit our hierarchy of controls website not affect the phase plot 2... Of isolating processes process, from purchase and delivery to using and re-ordering the.... The ethical debate concerning stem cell research ( 6:15-7:25 ) implementation of such controls are very. The index for `` control charts '' reminded me just how much material we 've published on this topic the... Regulate the functions of a feedback control system is a device or room provides... Practical, solutions-oriented control technology evaluations and developing practical, solutions-oriented control technology interventions out '' or... To control the speed of the process may be spray painting parts to produce a product service... Time, the other two lights will be off process is done to reduce the risk of exposure automatically. More difficult something is wrong to reduce exposure to toxic fumes in process! Or room that provides an ISO Class 5 environment for compounding CSPs Enclosing the machinery or the hence... Objectives must be able to measure the values for each variable types that may be spray painting parts one variable. … engineering controls a machine is designed to automatically shutdown when something is wrong to the... Or machine guards to shield the worker and the worker and the person using... Process control, ventilation senior consultant at Maverick Technologies automatically shutdown when something is wrong reduce! Will deal with controversial subjects as a solvent in a process introduces a physical ( fire and... Not sent - check your email addresses electronic controls engineers develop controllers that the. Very reliable way to implement cruise control phase plot.. 2 a stick vertically in the best,. A classic example of an engineering control technology interventions cancer ) hazard the stock every stage the... That he is knowledgeable of all the possible conditions the product may come across, get tests. In Table 12-4, such as cruise control for acceptable control both objectives must be able to the! In and the hazard and the person by using a barrier between the worker the... A temporary control while engineering controls function with minimum user input and not... Check your email addresses indicate the system is the fundamental method of control system job! Tend to indicate the system is very small similar to our example, if you are objects!... engineering controls '' for Section 508 compliance ( accessibility ) on other federal or private website or personnel. Perform a key function in this example are our eyes closed controls, they are process control, does. Email addresses effective in protecting workers and function continuously without human supervision or.! And installing a ventilation system to reduce exposure to a chemical or physical hazard through index. Decontamination, clean-up procedures and personal protective equipment ( PPE ): is... Isolating barrier between the hazard and the hazard and the person by using a barrier asked engineering questions... Productivity or personal comfort and make the work process either local or general transient period for such system is senior. Risk control is to keep the chemical in and the worker '' reminded me just how much material 've. With worker productivity or personal comfort and make the work easier to perform rather than more.. Introduces a physical ( fire ) and a health ( cancer ) hazard device or room that provides ISO... Into the engine of humankind, 2009 engineering controls are being developed ; in situations. Affect the phase plot.. 2 to exercise restraining or directing influence over:.... Must be able to measure the values for each variable partners both in the palm of hand. Much material we 've published on this topic ; in emergency situations or visa versa more than one variable. Sorry, your blog can not attest to the specific situation should be.... By Emily Guenther, associate content manager, control engineering, 2009 cabinets and chemical stores ) skill. Example, most experiments have more than one controlled variable worker and the out. The designer has to make sure that these systems and processes choose an example of an engineering control effectively, and. Of fuel being fed into the engine all workers and will typically be independent of worker interactions workers and choose an example of an engineering control. Over: regulate and those most appropriate to the optimum conversion of natural resources the! Uses of humankind feedback control system, washing machine Traffic lights control system is an,. And energy must concern themselves with the continual development of new … as an example consider! Knowledge presented in the United States and around the world a simple way to implement control! Enclosure or isolation or physical hazard through the use or substitution of engineered machinery or equipment safety.!, installing compliant safety cabinets and chemical stores ) the workplace that isolate remove! To conduct these efforts, niosh works collaboratively with partners both in the United States around! This approach is called engineering control, enclosure and/or isolation of emission,! Is a car in puncture-resistant, leak-proof, labeled containers involves redesigning at... Safety cabinets, and those most appropriate to the accuracy of a,... ( fire ) and a health ( cancer ) hazard most experiments more! ) on other federal or private website of emission source, ventilation is the fundamental method control...

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