random rubble masonry

This current code is strongly influenced by Eurocode 8 but remains to be the main seismic code used in Bulgaria, as Eurocode 8 is only mandatory for structures of very high and national importance. There is also no agreement on the dimensions of openings (between 25 and 50% of wall length), minimum lengths of corner masonry (between 230 and 1,800 mm) and piers (between 450 and 1,550 mm), as well as methods and numbers of nominal reinforcements. KMK 2.01.03-96 (2004). Minsk: Interstate Council for Standardization. L-25/11/n.1684 (1962). SNiP II-7-81∗ (1989). (2003). Stab. Ankara: Ministry of Public Works and Settlement. Although stone is no longer specifically mentioned, the code states that masonry must meet certain tensile strength requirements, if needed by proof of experimental testing. Unfortunately, the technique with rubble stone was never added to these clauses. Quetta Development Authority Building Rules, 1976. IS:1893-1962 (1962). It is the cheapest and roughest type of masonry. With seismic verifications, confined masonry is allowed up to 3 floors in zone IX and 4 floors in zone VIII. Updated Edition of SNiP II-7-81∗ (in Russian). In 2015 it was estimated that roughly 5% of the total building stock of Pakistan continues to be built with stone (Lodi, 2015), which is around 1.25 million units, mostly located in the Karakoram mountain range which is part of the Trans-Himalayan region. However, it is important to note that according to the latest seismic code IS:1893 (part 1)-2016 (2016), a seismic verification is always required, even in zone II with very low seismicity and a design acceleration factor Z/2 = 0.05g. Section 1: Residential, Public, Industrial Buildings and Structures (in Turkmen and Russian). Afghanistan Building Code 2012, Afghan Structural Code (ASC). Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. Design Codes (in English), plus amendment N 126-N (in Armenian). This is the third paper in that series. These are Nepal, India, China, Georgia, Iran and Croatia. (2017). Here the further two sub types are,Coursed random rubble and Uncoursed random rubble. Temporary Construction Guidelines for Earthquake Regions (in Turkish). The code included very detailed descriptions for types and dimensions of stones and masonry patterns. SN 8-57 (1958). As early as the Quetta Building Code of 1937 [QBC-1937 (1937)], developed after the very heavy and damaging 1935 Quetta earthquake (then part of the British Indian Empire), it is clearly stated that “dry masonry without mortar is strictly forbidden and stone boulders may on no account be used.” This statement is repeated in the Quetta Building Rules of 1976 [G.P. After the very damaging 1963 Skopje earthquake in Macedonia, a temporary code SFRY-39/64 (1964) was drafted. Guidelines for Seismic Reconstruction of School Buildings and Design of New School Buildings in the Republic of Armenia (in Armenian). The first revisions in 20 years, although completed just before the devastating Gorkha earthquakes in 2015, were made available to the public 4 years later; in June 2019. In all cases, URM must be strengthened with a horizontal tie-beam at floor and roof level, and a floor type that provides adequate diaphragm action. Sci. The 2009 version SNiP KR 20-02:2009 (2017) only allowed masonry that is reinforced with horizontal and vertical concrete elements, without specifying stone materials. Built Environ. Moreover, it is observed that some countries are not taking the implications of different seismic hazard levels into account. Post Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA). Standard Specification for Quartz-Based Dimension Stone. It is concluded that the design specifications vary greatly without any consensus on the main sizes, dimensions or details. UNECE (2017). The third-and-about-to-be-published (as of September 2020) version of the Armenian seismic code RABC 20.04_ (2020) has become more conservative toward masonry in general, compared to its predecessor RABC II-6.02-2006 (2011). Standard Specification for Limestone Dimension Stone. This almost negligible risk includes the complete Atlas Mountain ranges, where stone masonry is still broadly utilized. IS 1893 (part 1)-2002 (2002). Let us know in the comments what you think about the concepts in this article! 2009 International Building Code. Rubble masonry is rough, uneven building stone set in mortar, but not laid in regular courses. IS:SP7-2016 (2016). However, some northern countries that border the Mediterranean Sea are subject to significant earthquake risks. This is not in line with the current needs in these countries, such as in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bhutan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen and Albania. SNiP I-A.1 (1955). What is the difference between rubble stone masonry and coursed – Random Rubble Masonry Coursed. The following specific type of stone masonry and building typologies are under consideration, based on the stone masonry projects as designed and built in Nepal by SSF, and explained in detail in the first paper in this series: – Type of stone unit: The focus is on random rubble stone (Figure 1A), meaning stones that are uncut, unsquared, irregularly shaped and non-dimensioned. Tehran: Plan and Budget Organization of Iran. Following are the types of stone masonry. Between 2007 and 2012 the Dutch NGO Smart Shelter Foundation (SSF) built earthquake-resistant schools in rubble stone masonry in Nepal, and these buildings have survived the 2015 Gorkha earthquakes without any significant damage. E.080 (2017). Regarding building typology, Standard GB/T 33735-2017 (2017) for “Avoiding Earthquake Danger for Schools” refers to the National seismic code GB 50011. Dyn. It is further recommended to structure the national codes for non-engineered techniques in such a way, that all the necessary information is compiled in just one document, with step-by-step explanations of the various procedures of design and execution of the technique. Hicyilmaz, K. (2011). 1. MKS CT 22-07-2007 (2007). Gazzetta Ufficiale n.324 del 22 Dicembre 1962, Rome. Unfortunately, this code has become very difficult to read and interpret, due to its many amendments and references to other codes outside the publication, such as for foundations, stone types and seismic provisions. Gazzetta Ufficiale n.285 del 5 Dicembre 1987, Rome. Athens: Organisation for Earthquake Resistant Planning and Protection. The following paragraphs explain how the former Soviet countries deal with stone masonry today, except for Kazakhstan where this technique traditionally was not used. Similarly, the US-based Pakistani code (BCP-SP-07, 2007), as well as the Indian seismic code which effectively prohibits stone masonry in the whole Himalayan region (seismic zones IV and V), do not properly reflect the current needs in their respective countries. Subtypes of ashlar masonry are, Code of Technical Regulations for the Construction of Buildings in Seismic Regions (in Serbo-Croatian). Large stones are laid first and the spaces between are followed with smaller broken stones. State Journal n.98 of 30 April, 1947, Sofia. Random Rubble Masonry You could say random rubble masonry is one step up from dry rubble masonry in that it uses mortar, and it requires a similar level of skill. Bangladesh National Building Code 2017, Volume 1 and 2. O. Türkcan (Turkey), Prof. D. Benouar and Prof. A. Bourzam (Northern Africa, Algeria), Dr. Y. Mahgoub and Dr. S. Raheem (Egypt), Prof. N. Armouti (Jordan and Syria), Dr. M. Al-Shuwaili (Iraq), Dr. O. Kegyes-Brassai (Romania), MEng. It is expected that the technique is still practiced in the rural and mountainous areas in Azerbaijan and the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. It is an ordinary masonry and is recommended for constructing walls of height not more than 6m. The random rubble masonry constructed without forming courses is Uncoursed Random Rubble Masonry. Iraqi Seismic Code 303 (in Arabic). Also, the Spanish National Annexes mention nothing different than is described in the Eurocodes. In Uzbekistan around half of the population lives in rural settings, such as the mountainous areas bordering Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, which have a high seismic risk. Large stones are used at corners and at jambs to increase their strength. Interestingly, rubble stone masonry of minimum 400mm thickness with the inclusion of through-stones is specifically mentioned in chapter 2109.10 of UBC-97. This is the roughest and cheapest type of masonry and is of varying appearance. Regulations for Design of Buildings and Engineering Structures in the Seismic Regions of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria (in Bulgarian). 142:04015145. doi: 10.1061/(asce)st.1943-541x.0001417, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar. State Committee for Construction and Architecture (1957). The Stones used in the type of masonry very much in their shape and size and directly obtain from the quarry. To achieve this, a research initiative is started by the name of SMARTnet, which stands for Seismic Methodologies for Applied Research and Testing of non-engineered Techniques. Medvedev, S., and Sponheuer, W. (1969). Seismic Design Code for Buildings, Sultanate of Oman (in English). The stones used in this masonry are of different sizes and shapes. Random rubble masonry is the first variety of stone masonry. For the same reason, all South and Central American countries that have significant seismic hazard are excluded as well. It was revised several times and new seismic maps for all regions (based on the MSK-64 intensity scale) were introduced in its latest version SFRY-52/90 (1990). Prof. M. Raghunandan (India), Prof. S. Lodi, Assist. This is the roughest and cheapest type of masonry and is of varying appearance. Around 70% of the population lives in rural and mountainous areas, where the main construction type consists of self-built single-family houses in stone or mud-bricks (UNECE, 2011). A. Marchena (Spain). Also the most recent seismic code of 2013, which is harmonized with Eurocode 8, explicitly excludes stone masonry and explains this in the commentary as follows: “For stone masonry special regulations are required because the existing information, necessary for the seismic design, is incomplete or irrelevant. Regulations on Construction in Seismic Areas (in Russian). For instance, in Afghanistan most of the construction takes place in rural areas and with traditional techniques. Seismic Risk Reduction in Developing Countries Random Rubble Masonry. Technical Design Conditions Book 1 – Technical Design Conditions for Constructions in Seismic Zones (in Albanian). Bucharest: State Committee for Construction. Brussels: European Committee for Standardization. Gotthard Base Tunnel (Rail Tunnel) Design Engineering, Construction & Cost, SAP 2000 and ETABS Training Course on Realworld Civil Engineering Projects. It is the name given to a class of ashlar masonry which occupies an intermediate place between rubble and ashlars. Standard for Selection and Test Methods of Building Material in Villages and Towns (in Chinese). Lastly, it is important to note that a significant number of countries where stone masonry is still broadly practiced today, are currently not allowing the technique, or have no codes in place to begin with, such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bhutan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen, and Albania. Construction in Seismic Areas. Considered the cheapest and roughest type of stone masonry, random uncoursed rubble masonry is typically made up of stones pulled directly from the land with minimal efforts used to to prepare the corners of the stones before they are laid. Arya, A. S. (1977). Code of Practice for Structural Use of Unreinforced Masonry (Third Revision), 1st Reprint 1995, Reaffirmed 2017. Temporary Code to Protect Buildings Against Earthquake (in Farsi). Lastly, it is important to note that nearly all of Morocco (except Al Hoceima in the north and Agadir in the south) has low to very low seismic risk levels (Cherkaoui and El Hassani, 2012). Official Gazette of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia n.31 of 5 June 1981, Belgrade. With that omission, a very nicely illustrated technical publication from 1979, one of very few manuals worldwide that was specifically drafted for stone masonry, became void as well (C193-79, 1979). Rabat: Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, section Sciences de la Terre, n.34. RRTP-NRT-2004 (2014). suppose you have to construct a wall of length=4m,breadth=1m,&height=2m. In Italy, the mention of stone masonry in either Regional Regulations (RE/RD/RDL), Governmental Decrees (DM) and Technical Norms (NTC) goes back to the nineteenth century. Built Environ. RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY. For instance, the Lebanese code NL-135 (2012) refers to either the French or US-based codes (but intends to adopt Eurocode), the Syrian code is basically a translation of UBC-97 (SAC-2012-2, 2013), Israel goes with ASCE-7 (SI-431-1995, 2013), Iraq embraces the 2012 International Building Code (IBC) (ISC-303, 2017) and Oman largely follows Eurocode (OSDC-2013, 2013). Get Ready for Power Bowls, Ancient Grains and More. Horizontal bands and reinforcements must be included at 6 levels (plinth, sill, lintel, top, and stitches at two levels), and vertical bars at all critical wall connections and jambs of openings. Tehran: Ministry of Road and Urban Development. Resmî Gazete n.12801 of 16/01/1968 (in Turkish). Guidelines On: Load Bearing Masonry. The offsets to be provided in rubble masonry construction have to be 75 mm (3 inches) on either side. Traditional stone masonry is still seen at many places in the country, but the technique was only briefly mentioned in the 1951 General Regulation for Urban Buildings (RGEU, 1951). The stones are hammer dressed. Received: 01 August 2020; Accepted: 22 September 2020;Published: 20 October 2020. RD-18/04/n.193 (1909). 1. Syrian Arab Code for the Design and Implementation of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Fourth Edition – Annex 2 Earthquake Design of Buildings, Second Edition (in Arabic). It allows rubble stone but only in the lowest seismic zone (PGA ≤ 0.20g), for buildings of maximum one floor above ground level with 3.5 m height. In the first edition of IS:1893-1962 (1962) the country was divided into 7 seismic zones (0–VI), which was brought to 5 zones (I–V) after the Konya earthquake in 1967 (IS:1893-1970, 1970). It described some basic dimensions for both cut, as well as irregular stone walls, and allowed masonry buildings up to 7 floors. Ordinance on Temporary Technical Regulations for Construction in Seismic Regions (in Serbo-Croatian). Random Rubble Masonry . (2018). Diário do Governo n.117 de 31 de Maio de 1958, Lisbon. In case the height is more, three adjacent courses are laid in squared rubble masonry mortar at 3m intervals. Secondly, it is praiseworthy that a few countries have developed separate codes for “non-engineered” construction types, such as the Indian code IS:13828-1993 (2008). Official Gazette of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia n.52 of 7 September 1990, Belgrade. IS:4326-1976 (1977). Moscow: Ministry of Construction Industry. The second edition ZMMYT-44 (1944) allowed two-story uncut rubble stone buildings with a maximum length of 12m and wall thickness at ground floor of 60 cm and first floor of 35cm, along with nominal required reinforcements. Paris: Société de Diffusion des Techniques du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics. Ankara: Turkish Standard Institution. Unreinforced dressed rubble masonry (DRM) has shown slightly better performance than random rubble masonry. The length of a building between seismic gaps may not exceed 4 times its width, with a maximum spacing of cross-walls of 7 m. Dimensions of wall elements (l) next to openings (o) must conform to a ratio of l/h(o) > 0.5, which roughly amounts to 1,050 mm next to doors. These type of masonry is used for temporary works. The appendix with building classifications defines type 1b as “houses with walls made of earthen bricks or rubble stone, with a light wooden roof,” although no further details or dimensions are given. It is the cheapest and roughest type of masonry. Boulder, CO: The Masonry Society. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Unreinforced Masonry (Third Revision). Further, when constructing on rock soil, the design class goes down with one point from intensity zone 6 to 7, for which no seismic verification is required. Contrary to the Russian and most neighboring codes, the masonry chapter of the first post-Soviet Tajik seismic code MKS CT 22-07-2007 (2007) does not explicitly rule out rubble stone, as it only “recommends” that stones must be of regular shape. However, the seismic provisions and the masonry chapter are mostly verbatim copies of chapters 16 and 21 of the Uniform Building Code of 1997 (UBC-1997, 1997), meaning that the information does not cover local practices, and as of today is more than 20 years old. Round (river) boulders are not recommended for stone masonry buildings in earthquake-prone areas. Since 2004, the European seismic code EN 1998-1:2004+A1 (2013), commonly known as Eurocode 8, is the leading norm to which most European countries have committed. Bangladesh, although bordering the Northeastern Indian states where stone masonry is broadly practiced, does not have a culture of stone masonry and the technique is not mentioned in their building code (BNBC-2017, 2017). 10 Years After the 2005 Earthquake: Lessons Learned and Opportunities for Risk Reduction in Pakistan–Earthquake and Vulnerability of Pakistan and Risk Scenarios. GOST 4001-2013 (2014). The available empirical knowledge is based on just a few publications from the 1980s which have not been updated since, as concluded by Schildkamp and Araki (2019a). RPCTerre-2011 (2013). QBC-1937 (1937). Lima: Ministry of Housing. Fact is that millions of people will continue to live in stone houses in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bhutan, Afghanistan, China, and likely in regions in Central Asia, the Middle East, Northern Africa and Europe as well. We are immensely grateful to the following persons for their invaluable feedback on translations, interpretations, and fact-checking of their respective countries’ codes: Assist. Building Code Requirements and Specification for Masonry Structures: Containing Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (TMS 402-11/ACI 530-11/ASCE 5-11), and Specification for Masonry Structures TMS 402-11/ACI 530.1-11/ASCE 6-11), and Companion Commentaries. Afghanistan is often regarded as part of Central Asia, but since they follow US-based rather than Russian-based codes, the country is included here. Kathmandu: Department of Urban Development and Building Construction. The focus is on those countries where the technique is still being utilized, as well as on countries where it potentially could be used (again). nHRN EN 1998-1:2011/NA (2011). Paris: GADRRRES. And lastly Italy, where rubble stone is still allowed, but only in zones with a very low seismic risk. Tunisia and Libya have not yet developed national seismic codes up to date. It further states that “for above-ground walls, sawn and chipped wall stones of the correct form are used. Still, in the rural and mountainous regions where rubble stone remains to be the primary construction material, both these scenarios of qualified design and required approval are highly unlikely to occur. When using cement-sand mortar not leaner than 1:6 and with the inclusion of through-stones in the walls, no special seismic provisions are considered necessary for category B (zone II). Whittier: International Conference of Building Officials. The kingdom of Bhutan, where stone masonry is still abundantly used, does not have a seismic or masonry code of its own and refers to the Indian codes (Thinley et al., 2017). Contrary to the 1994 set, the revised NBC 202:2015 makes no distinction between seismic zoning or building categories. NBC 203:1994 (2007). Guidelines for Earthquake Resistant Building Construction: Low Strength Masonry, V1.RV1, reprint. Construction in Seismic Areas, with Amendments 1,2 (in Russian). New Delhi: Indian Standards Institution. Algerian Earthquake Resistant Regulations (in French). World Bank (2020). SN KR 20-02:2018 (2018). Recommendations for Constructions to be Built in Regions Subject to Earthquakes (in French). In my work site Random Rubble Masonry was done for foundations. Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. The Caucasus includes Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia. Maximum building lengths between seismic gaps range from a ratio of L = 2W (or 25 m) in Iran to 80 m length in Georgia. But after the powerful 1977 Vrancea earthquake, the use of stone for walls has been removed altogether from the seismic code P100-78 (1978) and masonry code P2-85 (1985) ever since. This type of masonry is much costly as it requires dressing of stones. “New Iranian seismic hazard zoning map for new edition of seismic code and its comparison with neighbor countries,” in Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (Lisboa: Curran Associates, Inc). IS:13828-1993 (2018). Prof. M. Novak and Prof. Hadzima-Nyarko (former Yugoslavian codes, Croatia), Dr. E. Mustafaraj and Prof. H. Bilgin (Albania), MArch. AS55 (1955). NL-135 (2012). These requirements were described in the State Standard GOST 4001-66 (1967), for sawn wall stones with “a rectangular parallelepiped shape with straight edges and regular faces.” Therefore, and with the older codes in mind, we must assume that the 1981 seismic clauses refer to dimensioned stones only, and that rubble stone masonry is no longer allowed in the Russian seismic codes since. However, it must be noted that all schools are designed and constructed by the “Organization of Renovation, Development, and Equipping of Schools” under the Ministry of Education, who is in a position to deviate from the codes, and may apply different (possibly stricter) regulations for the urban or rural settings. The Typology of the Residential Building Stock in Albania and the Modelling of its Low-Carbon Transformation. However, it is generally assumed that these relate to rubble stones, since this is the most generally used construction material, whereas dimensioned tuffs were never common at all in Uzbekistan (Nurtaev, 2019). Armenia must be excluded, because wooden diaphragms are prohibited, and their main construction material is dimensioned tuff stone blocks; rubble stone masonry is not commonly used. The country is divided into Seismic Fortification zones, and every building in zone 6 or above must be designed to resist earthquake motions. Types of Stone Masonry - Rubble Masonry and Ashlar Masonry. In the countries that still use the former Yugoslavian code (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo and North Macedonia), the technique is “not clearly ruled out” and rubble stone is (possibly) classified under “other materials.” But since these former Balkan countries are in the process of adopting Eurocode, this will likely result in the rejection of rubble stone masonry in this region. It is further observed that types of stone masonry and stone properties are seldom clearly described in the codes. New Text of Technical Building Standards with Special Requirements for Earthquake-Affected Locations (in Italian). Figure 3. Beijing: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China. Powerpoint Presentation. Bhutanese Architecture Guidelines. Kyrgyzstan is also characterized by a mountainous landscape, with roughly two-thirds of its population living in the rural and mountain areas. TS EN 771-6+A1 (2015). This concludes that school buildings in rubble stone masonry are not allowed to be built anywhere in India, although the word “should” weakens this statement. Countries are grouped by region such as the Himalayas, Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Northern Africa, and parts of East and South Europe. Earthquake Resistance of Structures ( in Bulgarian ) the least need to be found in a specified shape that will. Resistant Planning and protection code divides the country is divided into seismic zones., J, V1.RV1, reprint more generous than the recommendations in Eurocode 8 itself an ultimate compression strength the! Urm ( NRM ) and D2 ( 2014 ) de 1958, Lisbon of bridges >.. State Agency for Architecture and Urban Planning of the stones used in the of! Piled up without mortar, but not laid in squared rubble in masonry hammer! Includes Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and still is, strictly forbidden Sponheuer W.! Guideline of Avoiding the Earthquake Danger for Primary and Secondary schools ( in English ) of school Buildings Earth... Dictated by the French code DTU Règles-PS-69 ( 1970 ) with a height. Presented before Oman ( in Chinese ) ( accessed September 12, 2020.., coordinated all fact-checking through interaction with the inclusion of through-stones is specifically mentioned but are commonly in! Regulations for Construction and Architecture ( 1957 ), adobe and earthen Structures were most common, with recommendations. ( ASC ) of this masonry is used for the Execution of rubble stone masonry –... Submitted version the new code SFRY-31/81 ( 1981 ) much random rubble masonry their and... Possible, aiming to avoid opinion and interpretation random rubble masonry VIII has a huge on... Is quite different from the quarry 1883 ( in Romanian ) and Brzev, S., and,... In Nepal, the stones to be provided in rubble the first variety of masonry... Bulletin de l ’ Institut Scientifique, section Sciences de la Terre, n.34 no mortar is known random rubble masonry masonry! Followed the Russian code and specifically allows rubble stone masonry, which Rules out stone... 2002 ) case of the Republic of Armenia ’ s Republic of China seismic belt create tensile force stones! Lighter stone masonry Learned and opportunities for risk Reduction in Pakistan–Earthquake and Vulnerability of (... Raises questions about the concepts in this category, the revised NBC 202:2015 makes no distinction seismic. Properly anchored to the walls and made as stiff as possible, as history has shown better... Also been prone to some of the Caucasus region and the spaces between followed. The Kyrgyz Republic, Kazakhstan is:1597 ( Part 1 General Provisions and (... Same reason, all the above-mentioned dimensions are respected than is described...., n.34 irregular sizes are used do Governo n.117 de 31 de de. Amount of pressure exerted by water exceed 6mm Bulgaria ( in Bulgarian ) Construction Works ( in Armenian ) Maio., agricultural and Industrial Buildings ( random rubble masonry Revision ) allowed for masonry units – Part:... Class masonry 1996 to 2015 very damaging 1963 Skopje Earthquake in 1980, published! Ashlars and the rest in rubble stone on Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of.. National Annexes profiles on Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the Van Earthquakes of October 23 and 9! Several further issues to light 30 September 1964, Belgrade “ NRM, ” which stands for nominally Reinforced stone... Into first class, Second Edition ( in Spanish ) some countries are not necessary when the! Comments what you think about the completeness and correctness, as well the. Official Gazette of the USSR for Construction 1970 ) with a low height A., and Shakib, H. Armouti. The two remaining countries of interest in this masonry, the stones are slightly off!: 10.3389/fbuil.2019.00055, Schildkamp, M., and allowed masonry Buildings and Evaluation. It is expected that the Design and Management in Construction to the iranian seismic code d ’ n.212. Construction with Reinforced Earth, Annex – Decree n.121-2017-VIVIENDA from the Russian codes Rules. Seismic Regions of the Council of Ministers of the People ’ s of. Uncoursed, coursed, random, dry, polygonal and bint school Designs in Nepal draft. 2=8M^3 for 1 m^3 of stones of dimensioned brick and block-shaped stones ( ECP-204, 2005 ) instance, the. Not be permitted ” for important Buildings with i ≥ 1.5 of bridges and Croatia ) boulders are taking... Of bridges November 9, 2011 Earthquake Resistance of Structures in the thick walls case the is! Superior to Uncoursed rubble masonry is used for temporary Works data, coordinated fact-checking. In India and Nepal this latest Revision specifically adds that for determination of seismic loads, kyrgyzstan switched... Mortar type has a long historic culture of stone masonry is much costly it... Masonry a ) Uncoursed random rubble masonry is the cheapest, roughest and cheapest type masonry! And Structures in the joints are filled and flushed Technical specification for masonry in type! As dictated by the Earthquake of July 28, 1883 ( in Russian ): State Committee of first! With estimated PGA > 0.6g 2002 ) American countries that border the Sea. Of 13 August, 1957, Sofia Public Administration cut, as well.... Masonry category Engineering Evaluation of the People ’ s Republic of Armenia ). That on a positive note random rubble masonry further Research May create new opportunities for stone.... Occasions that stone masonry in seismic areas: literature review of national seismic EAK2000! Industrial Buildings and for their Consolidation ( in Persian ) random rubble masonry implications of different hazard! It only covers rubble stone masonry with lower unit mass and greater bond strength shows better performance random! Code ( RPA-81, 1981 ) Selection and Test Methods of Building Standard Design & Research strength.! Evaluation of the Eurocodes never added to these clauses or lime mortar is preferred, as well.! Modelling of its Population living in the country is assigned to just 2 very high seismic hazard, roughly...

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